Greg Lewbart

INVERTEBRATE MEDICINE, Second Edition BLOG

Hot Topic Article: Shock avoidance by discrimination learning in the shore crab (Carcinus maenas) is consistent with a key criterion for paina

January 21, 2013

Tags: Barry Magee and Robert W. Elwood. 2013. Journal of Experimental Biology 216:353-358.

Barry Magee and his professor Robert Elwood of the School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University, Belfast, designed an experiment utilizing wild caught shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) that determined this species can detect and selectively avoid noxious stimuli much as a vertebrate would. The article's extensive reference list includes other articles on this and closely related topics.

Summary:

Nociception allows for immediate reflex withdrawal whereas pain allows for longer-term protection via rapid learning. We examine here whether shore crabs placed within a brightly lit chamber learn to avoid one of two dark shelters when that shelter consistently results in shock. Crabs were randomly selected to receive shock or not prior to making their first choice and were tested again over 10 trials. Those that received shock in trial 2, irrespective of shock in trial 1, were more likely to switch shelter choice in the next trial and thus showed rapid discrimination. During trial 1, many crabs emerged from the shock shelter and an increasing proportion emerged in later trials, thus avoiding shock by entering a normally avoided light area. In a final test we switched distinctive visual stimuli positioned above each shelter and/or changed the orientation of the crab when placed in the chamber for the test. The visual stimuli had no effect on choice, but crabs with altered orientation now selected the shock shelter, indicating that they had discriminated between the two shelters on the basis of movement direction. These data, and those of other recent experiments, are consistent with key criteria for pain experience and are broadly similar to those from vertebrate studies.

http://jeb.biologists.org.prox.lib.ncsu.edu/content/216/3/i.1

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Selected Works

Science Writing
The Second Edition of Invertebrate Medicine was released in December, 2011. It has been substantially expanded from the first edition to reflect the tremendous growth of the pertinent literature and work that is being accomplished in the fields of invertebrate animal medicine, disease investigation, conservation, husbandry, and animal welfare. In 2012 it is being recognized with a Text and Academic Authors Association TEXTY award for excellence in the Life Sciences Category and first place in the Health Care Professionals (nonphysicians) category of the 2012 American Medical Writers Association Book Awards.
This book, edited by Karen L. Rosenthal, Neil A. Forbes, Frederic L. Frye, and Gregory A. Lewbart, utilizes approximately 400 clinical cases to describe and address many of the major medical and surgical conditions of exotic animal pets.
Invertebrate Medicine is the single most comprehensive resource available today on invertebrate animal medicine.
"....you will without doubt want to own this excellent collection of questions from fish veterinarians on both sides of the Atlantic...." --David Williams, The Veterinary Journal
Creative Non-Fiction
"This is a delightful book. The stories, each amazingly different, are told with warmth, humor and sensitivity. They are sometimes sad, always captivating. It is a book you can dip into on a journey or read before sleep at night. Buy it and give copies to your friends." Jane Goodall
Fiction
“....a darn good yarn.”
--Ken Moore, Naples Daily News
“...well-told and environmentally informative story about buried treasure and smuggling of exotic animals...”
--Rod Cockshutt, The News & Observer